April 25, 2016

posted Apr 25, 2016, 4:29 PM by Unknown user
Science: We're going to have a quick quiz tomorrow on Birds. YAY BIRDS! 
  • Parts of Birds
  • Types of Birds
  • Mechanics of Birds

Chapter Seventeen: Birds

Lesson One: Characteristics of Birds

Feathers

  • Feathers-help birds stay warm and dry, attract mates, and fly
  • Preening and Molting
  • Preening-the act of grooming and maintaining their feathers
    • spread oil on feathers to waterproof them -Molting-the shedding of an exoskeleton, skin, feathers, or hair to be replaced by new parts. -Two Kinds of Feathers
  • Down Feathers-a soft feather that covers the body of young birds and provides insulation to adult birds.
    • are fluffy and lay next to body; are used to stay warm
  • Contour Feathers-one of the most external feathers that cover a bird and that help determine its shape
    • stiff feathers that cover wings and body -color and shape helps attract mates -have stiff central shaft with barbs that link together to form the smooth surface -High-Energy Animals

Food and Energy

  • to get the large amounts of energy needed, bird bodies break down food quickly
  • this process generates a large amount of body heat
    • birds can’t sweat so they lay feathers flat and pant like a dog -Fast Digestion
  • eat insects, nuts, seeds, or meat because they are high in protein and fat
  • a few eat grass, leaves, and other plants 
    • food goes into the crop (stores food) then to the gizzard
    • gizzard has small stones to grind food -after passing through gizzard it goes to the intestines 
Flying
  • Most birds have 
    • light-weight bodies
    • powerful flight muscles
    • rapidly beating heart which helps them get plenty of oxygen
  • Flying Adaptations
    • air sacs-special organs that store air so they have a continuous supply
    • rapidly beating heart pumps a fast, steady stream of oxygen-rich blood to the flight muscles
    • large eyes-allow birds to see objects and food from a distance
  • Wing Shape and Function
    • short rounded wings-allow a bird to quickly drop and pull up
    • long narrow wings-are for soaring -rigid skeleton-allows a bird to move its wings powerfully and efficiently
    • Powerful flight muscles to move wings
    • Keel anchors the flight muscles and allows the bird to flap wings
    • Hollow bones-so their skeleton is lighter allowing it to fly -Getting off the Ground
  • Lift-an upward force on an object that moves in a fluid
    • allows birds to stay in the air
    • is affected by flying speed and wing shape
      • faster a bird flies the greater the lift
      • larger a bird is the greater the lift -some air is forced over the top and some is forced underneath the wing
      • wings are curved on top which creates the lift
Raising Baby Birds
  • Reproduce
    • sexually reproduce through internal fertilization
    • lay amniotic eggs and keep them warm
  • Nests
    • birds build nest
      • Brooding-to sit on and cover eggs to keep them warm until they hatch; to incubate.
      • Birds sit on eggs until they hatch, sometimes it is done by just the female but in other species it is done by both male and female
  • Precocial and Altricial
    • Precocial-active soon after they hatch
      • covered with downy feathers
      • as soon as they can stand up they follow parents and can walk, swim and feed themselves
      • get warmth and protection from parents
    • Altricial-are weak and helpless for awhile after birth
      • when they hatch have no feathers
      • eyes are closed
      • can’t walk or fly
      • parents keep them warm and feed them for several weeks

Lesson Two: Kinds of Birds

1. Flightless Birds

  • most don’t have the large keel to anchor flight muscles
  • some run quickly and some are skilled swimmers
  • includes penguins, kiwi, and ostrich
2. Water Birds
  • include cranes, ducks, geese, swans, pelicans, loons
  • find food both in the water and on land
  • many eat plants, invertebrates, or fish
3. Perching Birds
  • have special adaptation for resting on branches
  • includes songbirds like robins, warblers, and sparrows
  • when they land on a tree their feet automatically close around the branch
  • their feet will not open even if they fall asleep
4. Birds of Prey
  • hunt and eat other vertebrate
  • may eat insects, other invertebrate, mammals, fish, reptiles, and birds
  • have sharp claws on feet and a sharp, curved beak
  • most hunt during the day, but owls hunt at night
  • includes owls, hawks, and ospreys
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